A recent study has revealed that pregnant women have a higher chance of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) when hospitalized, with it being highest in the case of pregnant diabetic women.
During ASN kidney week, which runs from November 5 to November 10, a study revealed that AKI is attaining a substantially high rate in pregnant women of the US. The chances of the risk of death are quite a bit higher for pregnant women who are hospitalized while suffering from kidney injury than those who do not get hospitalized. The comparison goes as high as 260 times for the hospitalized ones.
A study was carried out, taking into consideration records retrieved from the 2006-2015 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which has data on over 7 million separate hospitalization episodes every year in the US. They looked over records of 15,550,459 cases of pregnancy hospitalization, of which 0.08 involved AKI in the age group of 15-49 years.
One of the factors that influence AKI is found to be increasing age and race The rate for black women was about 0.25%, while white women had a rate of 0.07%. Kidney injury is more common in southern and mid-western USA at 0.12% and teaching hospitals at a rate of 0.14%.
According to the study, “About 1.3% of pregnant women also had diabetes, and the rate of AKI was ten times higher at 1.2% in these women compared to the 0.1% rate in other pregnant women. The risk of pregnancy-linked AKI with diabetes increased from 0.36% to 1.2% over these years. Diabetes did not significantly change the death rate in pregnant women with kidney injury, which was at 3.2% compared to 2.5% for others. It did not change the rate of home discharge, either, which was over 75% in both cases."
The main reason behind kidney injury is found to be an increase in serum creatinine, which is caused due to significantly lower filtering of metabolic waste during pregnancy. Due to the heavy load on the kidney during pregnancy, the serum creatinine level is comparatively lower, leading to renal injury.
AKI marks its existence during two peak times of pregnancy – the first due to septic abortion in the first trimester and the second towards the end of pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. Some of the causes for the pregnancy-linked AKI are massive bleeding, typically post-childbirth but often because of pre-labor placental separation or low-lying placenta, septic abortion, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, etc.
When configuring the AKI rates in developing countries like India, the severe cases which require dialysis are about 10%, the mild cases being somewhere between 5% to 20 %, while in the developed world, it is as low as 1%. The data of this research truly enlightens a subject that needs proper and immediate attention to provide a better and healthy pregnancy phase for women.